The human body is exposed to a wide variety of toxins on a daily basis. The liver is the body’s main detoxification organ and provides enzyme systems that safely process and remove toxins. These detoxification systems are very complex and require a variety of nutrients for optimal function.
There are two main pathways of detoxification in the liver, known as Phase I and Phase II. Phase I, composed mainly of cytochrome P450 enzymes, involves nonreactive compounds undergoing specific reactions which use oxygen to form a reactive site on the compound. This prepares the metabolite for the next step of detoxification, known as Phase II. Phase II is a crucial step— if molecules from Phase I are not fully metabolized by Phase II conjugation, they may cause free radical damage to proteins, RNA and DNA within the cell. Phase II reactions result in the biotransformation of fat-soluble compounds into water-soluble compounds that can then be excreted in the urine, bile or stool. Liver Support ’s botanicals and plant extracts contain phytonutrients, antioxidants and other compounds that naturally protect plants from environmental challenges including exposure to radiation, toxins and other agents. In humans, these biologically active compounds have been shown to increase cellular defenses, up-regulate liver detoxification pathways and protect DNA.1,2
Silymarin (Milk Thistle Seed Extract)†
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is an annual plant indigenous to Europe and the United States and has been used for centuries as a botanical medicine to boost liver health. S. marianum contains silymarin, the biologically active component found in the seeds and leaves of this plant. Silymarin boosts liver health via several mechanisms of action including inhibiting lipid peroxidation,2 supporting liver detoxification through enhancement of the liver’s glucuronidation pathways,3 and protection against glutathione depletion.4 Silymarin has been shown to increase hepatocyte protein synthesis resulting in enhanced detoxification function.5
Artichoke Leaf Extract†
Artichoke is one of the oldest cultivated plants. The ancient Greeks and Romans considered artichoke to be a valuable digestive aid. Artichoke leaf extracts have been shown to provide antioxidant and liver support.6 In a double-blind crossover study in 20 subjects, artichoke extract was shown to increase the body’s production of bile.7 Animal studies have shown that artichoke protected liver cells against oxidative stress and prevented loss of glutathione.8-10
Turmeric (Complete Turmeric Matrix)†
Whole-root turmeric and its active components have been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for centuries. In herbal medicine of old, practitioners used teas, tinctures and extracts of all types. In the 21st century, as research grew on the benefits of turmeric, the focus shifted to identifying and isolating one individual compound, curcumin, rather than delivering the comprehensive benefits of a matrix of turmeric bioactives. As a result, concentrating curcumin led to poor absorption and pharmaceutical methods were applied to bypass the gut and increase its bioavailability. The glaring disadvantage of applying this pharmaceutical model to botanicals is that it misses the benefits of other bioactives present within the turmeric matrix and their positive effects on the microbiome. New research on turmeric shows the additional bioactives in turmeric have additional benefits and enhance bioavailability. The Complete Turmeric Matrix includes compounds from the entire turmeric root, all working together as nature intended to deliver better results. The Complete Turmeric Matrix formulation contains standardized amounts of 45%–55% curcuminoids, 2%-6% turmerin protein and 3%-8% volatile oil, plus other components that make up the whole turmeric root. This matrix of bioactive compounds supports a healthy GI tract, enhances detoxification, creates a healthy microbiome, and helps maintain normal inflammatory balance. Specifically, turmeric and its phytonutrients, like curcumin, have been shown to support Phase I and II liver detoxification. Curcumin elevates cellular levels of glutathione, one of the body’s major antioxidants that protects cells against free radical damage.11 It has also been shown to increase glutathione S-transferase (a Phase II detoxification enzyme), as well as the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase which results in a significant increase in a variety of antioxidant defenses.12 In a study examining the effects of curcumin on cells loaded with arsenic, it effectively counteracted the effects of arsenic by increasing the activity of the primary detoxification enzymes SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase.12
Garlic is a well-known spice with a number of healthpromoting properties. In an animal study, the effects of garlic on hepatic cells were examined following exposure to the toxic heavy metal, arsenic. Arsenic administration resulted in generation of free radicals, specifically reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused cell damage. The ROS generation in hepatic tissue reverted to normal values following the administration of garlic extract indicating the strong liver-protecting effect of garlic.13
Dandelion Root Extract†
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a native plant to the United States and Europe, where the leaves and roots have been used as food and herbal medicine. The German Commission E and European Scientific Cooperative for Phytotherapy have approved the use of dandelion root to support liver health and increase the body’s production of bile. Studies conducted in animals have shown that dandelion root increases bile secretion as well as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and SOD.14, 15
Methionine and Choline†
Studies have shown that the nutrients methionine and choline play a significant role in boosting liver health. Methionine and choline act as lipotropic agents which aid in fat metabolism as well as mobilization of fat out of the liver. In a study examining the effects of choline in 60 men it was found that consumption of 550 mg of choline per day supported the health and function of the liver, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations.16 Directions 2-3 capsules two times per day or as recommended by your health care professional. Does Not Contain Gluten, yeast, artificial colors and flavors. Cautions Do not consume this product if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult your physician for further information.
1. Tuteja N, Singh MB, Misra MK, Bhalla PL, Tuteja R. Molecular mechanisms of DNA damage and repair: progress in plants. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2001;36:337–397. 2. Huffman MA. Animal self-medication and ethnomedicine: exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants. Proc Nutr Soc 2003;62:371–381. 3. Bosisio E, Benelli C, Pirola O, et al. Effect of the flavanolignans of Silybum marianum L. on lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and freshly isolated hepatocytes. Pharmacol Res 1992;25:147-154. 4. Halim AB, el-Ahmady O, Hassab-Allah S, et al. Biochemical effect of antioxidants on lipids and liver function in experimentally-induced liver damage. Ann Clin Biochem 1997;34:656-663. 5. Campos R, Garido A, Guerra R, et al. Silybin dihemisuccinate protects against glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation induced by acetaminophen on rat liver. Planta Med 1989;55:417419. 6. Sonnenbichler J, Zetl I. Biochemical effects of the flavanolignane silibinin on RNA, protein and DNA synthesis in rat livers. In: Cody V, Middleton E, Harbourne JB, eds. Plant Flavonoids in Biology and Medicine: Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structure-Activity Relationships. New York, NY; 1986:319-331. 7. Kraft K. Artichoke leaf extract - Recent findings reflecting effects on lipid metabolism, liver and gastrointestinal tracts. Phytomedicine 1997 Dec;4(4):369-78. 8. Kirchhoff R, Beckers CH, et al. Increase in choleresis by means of artichoke extract. Phytomedicine 1994;1:107-115. 9. Miccadei S, Di Venere D, et al. Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells. Nutr Cancer 2008; 60(2):276-283. 10. Mehmetcik G, Ozdemirler G, et al. Effect of pretreatment with artichoke extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and oxidative stress. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2008; 60(6):475-480. 11. Zheng S, Yumei F, et al. De novo synthesis of glutathione is a prerequisite for curcumin to inhibit hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. Free Radic Biol Med 2007; 43(3):444-453. 12. Mukherjee S, Roy M, et al. A Mechanistic Approach for Modulation of Arsenic Toxicity in Human Lymphocytes by Curcumin, an Active Constituent of Medicinal Herb Curcuma longa Linn. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007; 41(1):32-42. 13. Flora SJ, Mehta A, Gupta R. Prevention of arsenic-induced hepatic apoptosis by concomitant administration of garlic extracts in mice. Chem Biol Interact 2009 Feb 12;177(3):227-33. 14. Schutz, K., Carle, R. et al. Taraxacum--a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 107(3):313-323. 15. Park C, Zhou Y et al. Hepatoprotective effect of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against acute liver injury induced by Carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats. The FASEB Journal. 2007; 21:862-8. 16. Veenema K, Solis C, Li R, Wang W, Maletz CV, Abratte CM, Caudill MA. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 Sep;88(3):68592.
Occasional constipation affects 15-20% of the US population. It can be caused by stress, dehydration, or diet and lifestyle choices. The prevalence of refined sugars and carbohydrates in the modern diet, combined with the low presence of fiber, is linked to slowed bowel transit time and altered colonic environment. Dietary fiber, the indigestible part of plant foods, enables smooth bowel movements, prevents occasional constipation, and promotes healthy gastrointestinal (GI) microflora balance. Other effects of fiber depend on the type (soluble or insoluble).
Occasional constipation affects 15-20% of the US population. It can be caused by stress, dehydration, or diet and lifestyle choices. The prevalence of refined sugars and carbohydrates in the modern diet, combined with the low presence of fiber, is linked to slowed bowel transit time and altered colonic environment. Dietary fiber, the indigestible part of plant foods, enables smooth bowel movements.
Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water. Substances found in insoluble fiber include cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. These cell walls of plants are not digested and help maintain bowel health and regularity. Foods rich in insoluble fiber include whole grains and most dark green leafy vegetables, like cabbage and cauliflower. Both types of fiber are necessary to maintain regularity and healthy bowel function. With the balanced ratio of soluble to insoluble fiber, Fiber Plus is an ideal way to achieve greater fiber intake with a balanced profile that represents a healthy diet.
The daily recommended intake (DRI) for dietary fiber varies with gender and age, but the USDA recommends 38 g per day for males ages 19-50 and 25 g per day for females ages 1950. Other health institutions recommend up to 50 g per day. The lack of adequate dietary fiber intake may lead to digestive challenges and skin concerns such as blotches and blemishes.
Several clinical trials have shown psyllium to be significantly effective as studied alongside laxatives.1 Studies have also demonstrated psyllium husk can improve overall bowel regularity.2,3 Psyllium has been found to be effective at increasing stool output and was found to improve the symptoms of occasional constipation increasing abdominal comfort and a sense of evacuation completeness, while reducing defecation effort. A randomized controlled trial found psyllium to have a significant effect among those with bowel irregularity and discomfort. After three months, symptom severity in the psyllium group was reduced by 90 points, compared with 49 in the placebo group.4 The laxative effect and gut- stimulatory effect of psyllium has been purported to be facilitated partially by muscarinic and 5-HT(4) receptor activation, which complements the laxative effect of psyllium’s fiber content.4 In addition, studies have also found that a 15 g dose of psyllium given three times per day before meals supports blood sugar and blood lipid levels already within normal levels.5,6
Flax seed has a diverse and healthy profile of omega fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids from ALA, omega-6 fatty acids from linoleic acid and omega-9 fatty acids from oleic acid. This blend is unique in that it contains both alpha linolenic acid and linoleic acid in generous amounts. Both alpha linolenic acid and linoleic acid are considered essential fatty acids because they are required for human health but cannot be synthesized by the body. However, changes in the modern diet over the last century have led to a decrease in the general consumption of omega-3 fats and a dramatic increase in the dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3. Since omega-3 fatty acids are known to benefit cardiovascular health, support a healthy brain, and are proven to maintain a healthy inflammatory response, achieving the proper balance of omega-3s is important health strategy, requiring supplementation for most people.7 Flax seed provides unique health benefits and supports individuals who need to increase their omega-3 intake.
In one animal study, daily consumption of rice bran, including water soluble rice bran and rice bran fiber concentrates, resulted in significantly enhanced blood sugar balance and fasting blood sugar and lipid levels maintained in the normal range.8 The extracts of rice bran have also been found to support cardiovascular health, a balanced inflammatory response and a healthy colonic environment.9, 10
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed consumption of pectin promotes healthy blood fats and maintains cholesterol levels already within a normal range.10 Liver fat concentrations have been found to be lower in rats fed diets containing apple pectin. Fecal bile acid excretion was also found to be reduced, and sterol excretion significantly increased with the addition of pectin. Rats fed pectin-rich diets also had lower levels of certain blood fats than controls.11
Fig (Ficus carica)†
The phytochemical properties of Fig’s laxative effect are due to the bulk of seeds and fibers.12 In a doubleblind, randomized controlled study of 20 patients with occasional functional bowel irregularity, supplementation with fig fruit increased frequency, reduced defecation time, improved abdominal comfort and heightened a sense of complete evacuation. Fig fruit supplementation also improved the symptoms of occasional irregularity,13 and the fruit has also been shown to maintain bulk in those with loose stools.14
Prune (Prunus domestica)†
Prunes or dried prunes contain 6.1 g of dietary fiber per 100 g, as well as large amounts of phenolic compounds which may aid in their efficacy for occasional constipation and glycemic support. The phenolic compounds in prunes have been found to inhibit oxidation of certain blood fat components in vitro, and thus may protect against oxidative damage. In addition, prunes have a high concentration of potassium and have been shown to support blood pressure and cardiovascular health.15 Another study found that consumption of prunes two times a day was effective in helping with occasional constipation in 40 subjects enrolled in an eight-week study.16
Directions 3 capsules per day with at least 8 oz of liquid or as recommended by your health care professional.
Does Not Contain Gluten, yeast, artificial colors and flavors.
If you are pregnant or nursing, consult your physician before taking this product. Without drinking enough liquid this product may swell in throat, causing blockage or choking.
Do not use this product if you have ever had esophageal narrowing or swallowing difficulties. Seek immediate medical help if symptoms of esophageal blockage (chest pain/pressure, regurgitation or difficulty swallowing) occur.
May cause allergic reaction in persons sensitive to inhaled or ingested Psyllium.
1. Frizelle F. Constipation in adults. Clin Evod (online). 2007; 0413 (August 1). 2. Mehmood, Aziz. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of psyllium husk (isphagula) in constipation and diarrhea. Dig Dis Sci. 2011; 56(5):1460-1471. 3. Kruis W, Forstmaier G, Scheurlen C, Stellaard F. Effect of diets low and high in refined sugars on gut transit, bile acid metabolism, and bacterial fermentation. Gut. 1991 Apr; 32(4):36771. 4. Bijkerk, Wit Nd, al MJe. Soluble or insoluble fiber in irritable bowel syndrome in primary care? Randomized placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2009; 339:b3154. 5. Sierra M. Garcia JJ, Fernandez N, Diez MJ, Calle AP. Therapeutic effects of psyllium in type 2 diabetic patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep; 56(9):830-42. 6. Anderson JW, Allgood LD, TurnerJ, Oeltgen PR, Daggy BP. Effects of psyllium on glucose and serum lipid responses in men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Oct; 70(4):466-73. 7. Connor WE. Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):171S-5S. 8. Qureshi A, Sami S, Khan F. Effects of stabilized rice bran, its soluble and fiber fractions on blood glucose levels and serum lipid parameters in human diabetes mellitus types I and II. J Nutr Biochem. 2002;13(3):175-187. 9. Komiyama Y, Andoh A, Fujiwara D, Ohmae H, Araki Y, Fujiyama Y, Mitsuyama K, Kanauchi O. New prebiotics from rice bran ameliorate inflammation in murine colitis models through the modulation of intestinal homeostasis and the mucosal immune system. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011 Jan; 46(1):40-52. Epub 2010 Aug 24. 10. Brouns F, Theuwissen E, Adam A. Cholesterol-lowering properties of different pectin types in mildly hyper-cholesterolemic men and women. EJCN. 2011; doi:10.1038(21 December). 11. Aprikian O, Duclos V, Guyot S, et al. Apple pectin and a polyphenol-rich apple concentrate are more effective together than separately on cecal fermentations and plasma lipids in rats. J Nutr. Jun 2003;133(6):1860-1865. 12. Joseph B, Raj J. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical properties of Ficus carica Linn-an overview. Intl J Pharm Tech Research. 2011; 3(1):8-13. Kim S-Y, al HBe. Effect of Ficus carica on functional constipation. FASEB J. 2010; Abstract supplement iIB 348 (April 24). 14. Patil VV, Bhangale SC, Chaudhari KP, Kakade RT, Thakare VM, Bonde CG, Patil VR. Evaluation of the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extracts of Ficus species Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012 Mar;10(3):347-52. 15. Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, PE B, A E. Chemical composition and potential health effects of prunes: A functional food? Critical reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2001; 41(4):251 -286. 16. Attaluri A, al RDe. Randomized clinical trial: dried plums (prunes) vs psyllium for constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011; 33(7):822-828.