According to the National Institutes of Health, autoimmune diseases alone affect approximately 24 million people in the United States.
What are Autoimmune Diseases?
Autoimmune disease happens when the body's natural immune system cannot differentiate your cells and foreign cells and causes your body to mistakenly attack normal cells. Over 80 different types of known autoimmune diseases can affect many body parts.
Common autoimmune diseases include Diabetes (Type I), inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis.
What are Glucocorticosteroids?
Glucocorticosteroids, powerful anti-inflammatory medications, are pivotal in managing a spectrum of conditions ranging from asthma and allergies to rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.
So, what are glucocorticosteroids? Inflammation is your immune system's response to an injury or infection. It causes your body to produce more white blood cells and chemicals to help you heal.
If you have an autoimmune disease, this response is triggered by mistake. That means your immune system attacks healthy cells and tissue as if they were viruses or bacteria.
Glucocorticoids reduce your immune system's response and prevent your body from producing too many white blood cells and chemicals.
The common pharmaceutical brands and names of glucocorticosteroids include prednisone (Deltasone), prednisolone (Orapred), methylprednisolone (Medrol), and dexamethasone (Decadron). Each of these medications carries a unique potency and side effect profile, with the choice of glucocorticosteroid tailored to the patient's needs and overall health condition.
Side Effects of Glucocorticosteroids
However, while indispensable for controlling inflammation and managing autoimmune diseases, long-term use of glucocorticosteroids can lead to certain nutrient deficiencies. This article delves into these deficiencies, their implications, and practical strategies for effective management.
While glucocorticosteroids are generally safe and effective, they can affect specific nutrients, primarily calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium. Only some individuals on glucocorticosteroid therapy will develop these deficiencies, but awareness of potential risks is paramount.
Chronic use of glucocorticosteroids can lead to lower calcium absorption and increased calcium excretion, potentially resulting in osteoporosis over time. A study in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2000) found that patients on long-term glucocorticosteroids demonstrated significantly reduced calcium absorption.
Solution: Regular monitoring of calcium levels and potential supplementation might be necessary. A diet rich in calcium, supplementation and weight-bearing exercise may also be recommended.
Vitamin D Deficiency
Glucocorticosteroids can also interfere with vitamin D metabolism, leading to reduced vitamin D levels. A study in the Archives of Internal Medicine (2012) found that long-term glucocorticosteroid use was associated with lower vitamin D levels, which can further contribute to bone loss.
Solution: Vitamin D levels should be regularly checked in patients on glucocorticosteroids. Vitamin D supplementation may be recommended, and sunlight exposure may be encouraged when appropriate.
Glucocorticosteroids can also affect magnesium levels, with prolonged use leading to hypomagnesemia. A Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1995) study reported lower serum magnesium levels in patients on long-term glucocorticosteroid therapy.
Solution: Regular monitoring of magnesium levels is recommended for patients on long-term glucocorticosteroid therapy. If necessary, dietary adjustments to include magnesium-rich foods or magnesium supplementation might be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare provider.
Importance of Testing and Supplementation
As not everybody on a glucocorticosteroid regimen will experience these deficiencies, it is essential to do regular tests for potential deficiencies, as not all symptoms are indicative. Many supplements counter these deficiencies and allow patients to lead a balanced life.
Glucocorticosteroids are essential in managing inflammation and autoimmune diseases. However, their long-term use can lead to certain nutrient deficiencies, primarily calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium. By staying informed about these potential deficiencies and addressing them promptly through regular testing and potential supplementation or dietary adjustments, patients on glucocorticosteroids can continue to live a healthy, balanced life.
As always, any medication or supplementation should be under the guidance of a healthcare provider to ensure its safety and effectiveness.